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Skogens helsetilstand i Norge. Resultater fra skogskadeovervåkingen i 2022
Skogens helsetilstand påvirkes i stor grad av klima og værforhold, enten direkte ved tørke, frost og vind, eller indirekte ved at klimaet påvirker omfanget av soppsykdommer og insektangrep. Klimaendringene og den forventede økningen i klimarelaterte skogskader gir store utfordringer for forvaltningen av framtidas skogressurser. Det samme gjør invaderende skadegjørere, både allerede etablerte arter og nye som kan komme til Norge i nær framtid. I denne rapporten presenteres resultater fra skogskadeovervåkingen i Norge i 2022 og trender over tid for følgende temaer:
(i) Landsrepresentativ skogovervåking;
(ii) Intensiv skogovervåking;
(iii) Overvåking av bjørkemålere i Troms og Finnmark;
(vii) Andre spesielle skogskader i 2022.
City-level mapping of air quality at fine spatial resolution – the Prague case study. NO2, PM10 and PM2.5 maps on a 100 m spatial grid.
This paper examines the creation of fine resolution maps at 100 m x 100 m resolution using statistical downscaling for the area of Prague, as a case study. This Czech city was selected due to the fine resolution proxy data available for this city. The reference downscaling methodology used is the linear regression and the interpolation of its residuals by the area-to-point kriging. Next to this, several other methods of statistical downscaling have been also executed. The results of different downscaling methods have been compared mutually and against the data from the monitoring stations of Prague, separately for urban background and traffic areas.
The downscaled maps in 100 m x 100 m resolution have been constructed for the area of Prague for three pollutants, namely for NO2, PM10 and PM2.5. Several methods of the statistical downscaling have been compared mutually and against the data from the monitoring stations. In general, the best results are given by the linear regression and the interpolation of its residuals, either by the area-to-point kriging or the bilinear interpolation. In the maps, one can see overall realistic spatial patterns, the main roads in Prague are visible through higher air pollution levels. This is distinct especially for NO2, while for PM10 and PM2.5 the differences between road increments and urban background are smaller as would be expected. The results of the case study for Prague have proven the usefulness of the statistical downscaling for the air quality mapping, especially for NO2. In addition, the population exposure estimates based on the downscaled mapping results have been also calculated.
Environmental pollutants in the terrestrial and urban environment 2022
Samples of soil, earthworm, fieldfare egg, brown rat liver, spanish slug, house dust and cat liver from the urban terrestrial environment in the Oslo area were analysed for several different groups of environmental pollutants. Biota-soil accumulation was calculated from soil to earthworm from the same location, and biomagnification-potential was estimated based on detected data for relevant predator-prey pairs from the same location.
Concept and plan of effect-based monitoring and effect directed analysis (EDA) of chemicals towards EWS
Establishment of an early warning system (EWS) for the identification of new and existing potentially hazardous substances is a key component of PARC. An EWS includes early warning monitoring toolboxes to identify chemical hazards in a broad range of biotic and abiotic matrices and products with a special focus on aqueous environment that may be associated with an unacceptable health risk. Effect-based monitoring (EBM) and effect-directed analysis (EDA) are identified as key toolboxes for prioritizing chemical hazards in various matrices including water, soil, sediment, sludge, air, dust, aquatic and terrestrial biota, human samples, products like food contact materials, and food. This report gives an overview of i) sampling strategies, ii) sample preparation methods for bioassays and chemical analysis, iii) EBM using bioassays, iv) chemical analytical methods including target, suspect and nontarget screening, v) EDA and iceberg modelling, and vi) future perspectives and needs for an EWS.
Partnership for the Assessment of Risks from Chemicals (PARC)